Mr. Connell is an approved Senior Consultant at Appleton Greene and he has experience in globalization, management and production. He has achieved a Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical) and is a Professional Engineer. He has industry experience within the following sectors: Chemicals; Construction; Food & Beverage; Mining and Oil & Gas. He has had commercial experience within the following countries: United States of America; Canada and South Africa, or more specifically within the following cities: Denver CO; Phoenix AZ; Toronto; Cape Town and Johannesburg. His personal achievements include: general manager for Sub-Saharan Africa; established & expanded mining group; executive sponsor of project portfolio; oversaw development of +$10BN project and improved project execution processes. His service skills incorporate: project initiation; project set-up; execution methodology; project management and project audits.
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Project management is the application of knowledge, processes, methods, skills, knowledge, and experience to meet and achieve specific objectives and criteria that are set for a project. These typically include cost, schedule, performance guarantees, quality and safety. It is accomplished through the effective and efficient application and integration of project management processes and a structured execution approach through the project’s initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, controlling and finally closing phases of a project.
Achieving project execution excellence is a challenge because projects are usually executed under significant schedule and financial constraints, are complex in nature, are executed in a dynamic environment and often faced with risks that are beyond the control of the project. Unfortunately, many executed projects do not achieve their cost and schedule objectives for a variety of reasons.
My service proposition is to provide a structured and guided methodology for each of the phases of project execution from project formation, initiation, studies, set-up, early and detailed engineering and design, procurement, construction, commissioning, hand-over through to close-out. Part of this structured approach also includes the importance and effective use of a well-defined project execution plan, the development of a solid project baseline and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), effective project controls to monitor and manage the project, the use of leading and lagging indicators and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to continually improve project execution performance, the value and use of Value Improving Practices (VIPs), the identification and mitigation of project risk and other key project management techniques that can be applied to project execution to achieve best-in-class and project execution excellence.
Although projects are executed in various business sectors and locations in the world, the fundamentals of excellent project execution and performance remain the same, irrespective of size, location, type and industry.
Without effective project management, projects will experience cost growth, schedule slippages, quality and safety performance issues and potentially result in significant claims by the owner and/or contractor/s at the end of the project. Project execution excellence can be achieved by adopting and applying some of the techniques and processes described above thus minimizing and mitigating execution risk to the owner and contractor alike.
I have extensive project execution, business, alliance and management experience over 35+ years in all aspects of international and domestic capital projects and programs. My project management experience includes brownfield and greenfield project assignments ranging from multiple small programs to mega projects worth over $10 billion on both the owner and contractor side. My diverse industry experience includes mining, metallurgical/materials handling, chemicals, petrochemicals, refining, food and beverage, packaging, utilities and infrastructure. I have managed all project execution stages from conceptual, Pre-FEED, FEED studies through the various stage gate approval processes, early and detailed engineering, construction, commissioning and start-up and project handover phases. My credentials are built on this diverse expertise, providing an international perspective and impeccable professional training by top-tier management companies.
The methodology adopted to achieve project execution excellence will focus on the specific project initiation, project set-up, execution methodology, project management, project controls, completion and close-out fundamentals and requirements to successfully execute a project.
Project initiation and set-up priorities include achieving strategic alignment between the key project stakeholders, the importance of a clear project scope and solid project baseline to control from, the alignment of the owners operational and the project objectives and goals and what is required to effectively initiate and set-up the project.
Execution methodology will explore the structured project execution process through effective front-end loading and the stage-gate process, define what is required to advance the project as the project definition matures and what approach should be adopted to execute the project. This also includes the need for realistic and integrated project execution planning, understanding the maturity of the project estimate, the development of the Project Execution Plan (PEP) which is based on the project baseline and the importance of well-defined and detailed project procedures.
Project management will explore the various techniques and processes that the project can apply to effectively manage, monitor and continually improve the project’s performance and predictability by the use of leading and lagging Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The value and use of Value Improving Practices (VIPs) will also be explored along with the identification, management and mitigation of project risk, the importance of interface management, effective quality assurance and control as well as Health, Safety, Security and Environmental (HSSE) management.
Effective project controls are critical for project execution excellence. This includes the development of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), an integrated project plan and schedule, accuracy of project estimates and forecasts, the effective management of project change and project auditing.
The project completion and close-out phase activities are equally important to ensure that the project is effectively completed and closed-out effectively, that the required project documents are updated to an “as-built” condition, the owner is operationally ready to take over the facility, the transfer of care, custody and control of the facility to the owner is accomplished and the retention of project.
Companies can elect whether they just require Appleton Greene for advice and support with the Bronze Client Service, for research and performance analysis with the Silver Client Service, for facilitating departmental workshops with the Gold Client Service, or for complete process planning, development, implementation, management and review, with the Platinum Client Service. Ultimately, there is a service to suit every situation and every budget and clients can elect to either upgrade or downgrade from one service to another as and when required, providing complete flexibility in order to ensure that the right level of support is available over a sustainable period of time, enabling the organization to compensate for any prescriptive or emergent changes relating to: Customer Service; E-business; Finance; Globalization; Human Resources; Information Technology; Legal; Management; Marketing; or Production.
By harnessing my project execution experience over the past 35+ years in international project execution, my mission is to harness these experiences and learnings and to impart this knowledge to my clients in order to improve their project execution practices, improve project predictability and maximize the probability of project success.
Effective and efficient project execution is complex and dependent on many factors and approaches in order to ensure a successful outcome. This is often influenced by the nuances, requirements and drivers of the various industries and how they impact and influence project execution, external factors as well as the importance of company culture and the alignment of the owner’s key corporate objectives with that of the project. The owners drivers are often focused on plant operations and production and are different to that of the contractor managing the project on behalf of the owner. It is critical to reach alignment between these parties as well as other key stakeholders of the project, in order to successfully execute a project. This is particularly important when projects are executed internationally with diverse languages, cultures and level of expertise and are complicated even further when joint ventures (JVs) are formed to execute large or mega projects.
Through my diverse and international experience, my goal is to provide consulting services that guide my clients to focus on what is important on project execution and continue to improve the execution of their projects to achieve best-in-class project execution that result in a successful project outcome. This applies to both the owner and contractor.
The following list represents the Key Service Objectives (KSO) for the Appleton Greene Project Excellence service.
- Project Initiation
Effective project initiation is critically important for successful project execution. The project life cycle progresses through multiple phases from project appraisal through selection, initiation, execution and completion/handover. Activities completed prior to project sanctioning and execution are collectively referred to as Front-End Loading (or FEL) activities. The FEL phase includes the robust planning and design early in a project’s life cycle at a time when the ability to influence changes in design is relatively high and the cost to make those changes is relatively low. It typically applies to industries with highly capital intensive, long life cycle projects (i.e. hundreds of millions or billions of dollars over several years before any revenue is realized), but can be applied to the majority of projects. The project initiation service objectives are to address what activities are to be completed during the FEL phase in order for a project to be sanctioned and proceed successfully. This includes the various studies that are typically required prior to project execution e.g. Conceptual, Pre-feasibility and Feasibility studies (sometimes referred to as Front End Engineering and Design or FEED studies). These scoping studies may even conclude with a bankable feasibility report that is used to support the funding requirements for the project. This is typically required from financial institutions that fund large projects in the mining industry. During this phase, the following key elements will be addressed: project business case, initial project scope, process options, conceptual/preliminary engineering and design, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), preliminary cost estimates and schedule, the initial project execution plan and contracting approach. The main execution contractor (sometimes referred to as the EPC Contractor) will be selected and mobilized prior to project execution. It is important for this phase of the project life cycle to be adequately defined and completed in order to enable the successful completion of future phases in the project.
- Project Set-up
Project set-up activities are normally initiated at the completion of the project FEL phase in conjunction with the selected Engineering, Procurement and Construction (or EPC) Contractor. By this time, the main contracting approach should be established for Engineering (E) , Design (D), Procurement (P), Fabrication (F), Construction Management (CM) and/or Construction (C) of the project. This may take the form of EP and CM, EPCM, EPC, EPFC or various combinations thereof. The Project set-up service objectives include the definition of project set-up that are required prior to the commencement of basic or preliminary engineering. This includes the completion of the solid project baseline that is used to control the project, a Project Execution Plan (PEP), a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to control the project, the development of project procedures, project organization, project contracting approach, a detailed project schedule, updated risk assessment and execution procedures for the various project disciplines including, project management, engineering and design, procurement, quality, construction, project business services (including finance and HR), project controls, Health Safety Security and Environmental (HSSE) and construction. The Owner and EPC Contractor project execution teams are structured and mobilized during this phase of the project and aligned with the PEP. The various key set-up activities and requirements will be addressed in this objective to ensure that the project is ready to proceed once the project has been sanctioned. Effective project set-up is crucial for the progression of the project and the commencement of engineering and design. Items and issues that are not adequately addressed up this point in the project, will need to be addressed in detailed execution phase of the project, thereby impacting project efficiency and productivity.
- Execution Methodology
As described in the Project Initiation objective above, the project life cycle progresses through the FEL phase and onto execution, completion and then the facility is handed over to the Owner for operation. The Execution Methodology service objective includes the adoption and implementation of the “Stage-gate” process to execute and manage projects. This phased approach provides a structured methodology to progress the project execution systematically and in a phased manner, until the project is completed successfully. It is highly recommended to follow this stage-gate approach which separates project execution into project scoping and conceptual development (FEL phase), preliminary (or basic) engineering, detailed engineering and design, procurement, fabrication/construction, check-out/start-up and close-out phases. The FEL usually includes sufficient preliminary engineering and execution planning to define the project scope, schedule and estimate to support the project sanctioning. The stage gate methodology also provides checks to ensure that the project is sufficiently defined to proceed from one phase to the next in order for the project to be executed efficiently. The various project requirements are addressed to support the various phases of the stage-gate process for the following project disciplines: project management, engineering and design, supply chain management (procurement, contracting, expediting, logistics and inspection), business services (finance, administration, HR), project controls (cost,planning, schedule, reporting), Health Safety Security and Environmental (HSSE), risk management, construction and commissioning as well as the requirements to progress from one phase to the next. In the case of small or multi-project programs, the phased stage gate project execution approach can also be adapted to provide an effective project execution methodology.
- Project Management
Effective project management ensures that a project is planned and managed throughout its life cycle to successfully achieve its goals, objectives and deliverables. It ensures the health and safety of all resources during the project cycle, identifies and continuously manages risks, carefully manages the resources, provides effective budgeting, monitoring and controlling work activities across multiple work fronts, management of change and clearly communicates across multiple teams and stakeholders. A good project manager takes control of a project from beginning to end, ensuring that the initiatives and goals are strategically aligned are met. The Project Management objective includes providing guidance to project managers as they manage their client responsibilities, manage multiple interfaces and stakeholders, identify, manage and mitigate project execution risks that pose threats to the project as well as the other responsibilities assigned to the project manager. Effective project management enhances and assures project predictability, provides realistic planning and scheduling, effectively manages both project cost and schedule, identifies and mitigates project risk, supports strategic alignment, manages the execution process, manages change effectively, maintains quality, ensures that plant, personnel and the environment remain safe, secure and healthy. Various tools and techniques are available to, and should be used by the project manager to continually improve the project’s performance and predictability. These include the use of leading and lagging Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and the application of Value Improving Practices (VIPs) in different phases of the project. Effective project monitoring and reporting is essential to manage the progress on the project. The objective of this service is to identify and apply the appropriate tools and techniques in a timely manner to achieve best-in-class project execution performance. This applies to the provision of Program Management Contractor (PMC) and Alliance Management Contractor (AMC) services as well.
- Project Audits
Project audits are used to monitor and assess the project’s performance and to assess and confirm its compliance to the project procedures and standards. Various project management audits can be conducted on a project. These include but are not limited to the following: Project management execution audits for overall project management compliance, financial compliance, cost and schedule, health, safety, security and environmental, operational compliance and quality audits for project management and other project disciplines. Procedural audits for the engineering and design, procurement, fabrication and construction etc. The Project Audit objective is to support and conduct project management audits on projects, to review project management audit methodology and procedures with the view of improving these, to review project execution strategies and plans as well as project management procedures. Audits can also be conducted by external and third parties to assess the execution of the project and to benchmark a project’s readiness and performance against other projects in the industry. This process can be facilitated if required.
“As General Manager for Mining and Metals for Sub-Saharan Africa, Mr. Connell was instrumental in establishing the mining and metals business line in Johannesburg, South Africa to execute and manage projects throughout the Sub-Saharan region of Africa. This resulted in the establishment and building of a 200 strong project execution group in South Africa to execute projects in South Africa, Madagascar and Botswana and supported project efforts in West Africa. It allowed the company to gain a foothold in Botswana to execute coal and diamond mining and mineral sands in Madagascar and the company’s clients to successfully complete their respective projects in these remote regions. As a Senior Project Director, Mr. Connell also executed a Bauxite project in Guinea, West Africa. Despite the challenges associated with the remote location and the impact of the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, this project has successfully completed and enabled the client to expand its mining production and exports. During this time, the project significantly transformed the safety culture of the client and all the contractors on the project and also left a legacy in Guinea by renovating two schools in the area and having a significant impact to the local community.”
A quotation taken from a client reference within the Engineering and Construction industry.
“As a Senior Manager of Projects at Jacobs, Mr. Connell was responsible for overseeing and managing Owner/Contractor project execution Alliances in the Rocky Mountain region (Colorado, Wyoming, Montana) and Oil Sands in Canada for various mining, oil & gas, food & beverage clients. As the Project Management Department Manager he also improved the company’s project execution methodology, multi-project execution quality and consistency. This improved and strengthened the Alliance relationships with the company’s key and core clients in the region and improved the project execution performance and the successful delivery of studies and projects. Mr. Connell also was proud to mentor and develop up and coming project management talent in the organization.”
A quotation taken from a client reference within the Engineering industry.
“As Alliance Director, Mr. Connell was responsible for managing the Alliance between Jacobs and Coors Brewing executing and delivering a significant project portfolio over a 4-year period. During his tenure, the project team significantly improved the multi-project execution methodology and outcomes for the brewing, packaging, utilities and infrastructure projects in multiple breweries and project locations throughout the USA. This enabled the client to achieve its expansion objective by the successful execution of the various capex, opex and sustaining capital projects in the portfolio. The Value Engineering (VE) program that was applied, yielded approximately 20% savings of total installed cost for the client.”
A quotation taken from a client reference within the Brewing industry.
“As a Senior Project Director, Mr. Connell managed a project team that successfully completed a Pre-Feasibility Study for the world’s largest estimated copper/molybdenum/gold mine in Alaska. Various trade-off studies were completed by the project team along with preliminary execution planning, engineering, a preliminary cost estimate and execution schedule as well as a risk assessment. A Value Engineering (VE) exercise was also conducted to provide further options to the client for further consideration. The successful conclusion of this study provided the client with a basis upon which to further develop and refine the project scope, determine the project viability and progress the permitting of the project.”
A quotation taken from a client reference within the Mining industry.
“As Engineering Manager on a large greenfield gold/copper project in a remote region of Indonesia, Mr. Connell managed the large and complex engineering and design program by utilizing fully integrated design tools and executing the work in various international offices worldwide. This integrated work-share program was considered to be best-in-class at the time and resulted in a successful execution, construction and start-up of the project that achieved its cost objective and was completed one month ahead of the project schedule. The project Value Awareness (VA) program yielded US$100 million in savings for the client. This was considered a word class project performance that delivered a core asset to the client in this remote part of the world.”
A quotation taken from a client reference within the Mining industry.
More detailed achievements, references and testimonials are confidentially available to clients upon request.
This service is primarily available to the following industry sectors:
Value of Industry
The chemical industry is a diverse global industry that essentially converts raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) into more than 70,000 different products. In most cases, major production facilities produce a multitude of chemicals and products. This is particularly relevant to the plastics industry. The chemicals industry can be split into three broad categories: basic, specialty and consumer chemicals.
Basic chemicals include polymers, petrochemicals (derived from oil or coal) and basic inorganics. These are typically produced in integrated chemical production processes that require significant investment by the owner. Specialty chemicals include paints, inks, colorants (dyes) and chemicals used in the textiles and paper industries. Consumer chemicals include detergents, soap, cleaning liquids (e.g. bleach) and toiletries.
According to the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA), the chemicals industry touches nearly every good-producing sector, making an estimated US$5.7 trillion contribution to world GDP through direct, indirect and induced impacts (equivalent to 7% of the world’s GDP), supporting 120 million jobs worldwide.
Market Leading Companies
The top global chemicals companies include, but are not limited to: BASF (Germany), Sinopec and PetroChina (China), DuPont, Dow and ExxonMobil Chemical (USA), Sabic (Saudi Arabia), Ineos (UK), Formosa Plastics (Taiwan), LyondellBasell Industries (USA/Netherlands), Mitsubishi Chemical and Toray Industries (Japan), LG Chem (South Korea), Reliance Industries (India) and Air Liquide (France). The list of major chemicals producers is extensive.
From 2000 to 2018, the chemicals market performed well due to the significant chemical demands from China. The contribution of shale gas from 2010 to 2014 also helped this effort.
The impact of the Covid-19 virus on the chemicals industry has had a significant impact on the overall consumption of chemicals worldwide. The recovery is underway with an improvement in many chemical consuming industries and the overall outlook for 2021 is stable but cautiously positive. A renewed focus on climate change and greenhouse gas emission initiatives with the change in the leadership in the USA, may have an impact on the chemical industry.
Key industry objectives
The chemicals industry objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services to the chemical companies/clients and contractors based on my expertise, experience and project execution knowledge of projects executed within the chemicals and petrochemicals industries. This includes the services and methodologies as described in the executive summary and service objectives listed above.
Value of Industry
The construction industry is a diverse and global industry that is essentially performed by general contractors. It includes all construction related activities in the following sectors: residential, commercial, industrial and infrastructure. Residential construction includes the development and construction of urban housing and accommodations (low and high density) as well as home renovations. Commercial construction includes the development and construction of structures, buildings and facilities (e.g. office blocks, commercial campuses) that are typically zoned for commercial use. Industrial construction includes offshore and onshore construction for energy, mining and quarrying, refineries, chemical processing, power and nuclear generation, mills and other production and manufacturing plants. Infrastructure construction includes the development and construction of large public works, dams, bridges, highways, railways, water, wastewater and utilities distribution. As it has a significant civil engineering content, it is also known as “heavy civil” or “heavy engineering”.
The industry is regulated by a series of building, design and construction codes with certain key designs that have to be performed by professional engineers registered in their respective states/countries in their respective design disciplines. This ensures that the designs are safe and in accordance with the applicable industry design and construction codes and standards. The Construction Industry Institute (CII) is another key institute that provides expertise regarding construction in general.
According to the Business Research Company, the total market value of the construction segment is reported to have reached around US$12.7 trillion dollars in 2019. Other sources place this around US$10-11 trillion, which is a massive market indeed. A significant portion of the worldwide construction market has and still remains in China. This is followed by India and the USA.
Market Leading Companies
The top global construction companies include, but are not limited to: China: China State Construction Engineering Corp.(CSCEC), China Railway Group (CRG), China Railway Construction Corp. (CRCC), China Communications Construction Group (CCCG), Power Construction Corp. of China (PCCC), China Metallurgical Group Corp. (CMGC) and many others. Others: Vinci and Bouygues (France), ACS (Spain), Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft (Germany), Strabag SE (Austria), Obayashi (Japan), Skanska (Sweden), Bechtel (USA), Larsen and Toubro (India), Technip FMC (UK) and many others.
Global construction activities are forecast to improve and grow as the market recovers from the Covid-19 pandemic slump. Although construction activity in China contracted during 2020, this is expected to expand and grow again to support the continued expansion of the Chinese market. A surge of approved industrial capital projects is expected to boost the construction segment in the coming years. The overall forecast for the construction industry remains positive.
Key industry objectives
The construction industry objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services to the companies/clients and contractors undertaking construction projects in the mining, metallurgical/materials handling, chemicals, petrochemicals, refining, food and beverage, packaging, utilities and infrastructure industries. This includes the services and methodologies as described in the executive summary and service objectives listed above, based on my expertise, experience and project execution knowledge of projects executed in these industries.
Food and Beverage
Value of Industry
The food and beverage industry is a large and diversified global industry that provides edible goods to society. This includes the manufacturing and processing of meats, cheeses, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, packaged foods and other modified foods. It does not include foods and products produced or provided by farming and other forms of agriculture, which are considered to be agricultural products.
The food and beverage industry can be split into two major segments: production and distribution of goods. Some consider the packaging of foods and beverages a third segment.
The industry is governed and regulated by strict laws and regulations to ensure that the products are sufficiently safe to consume. This includes the regulation of chemicals, processing cleanliness, disease control, quality, storage requirements etc. The world-wide trends continue to focus on improving the quality and nutritional value of the product, providing fresher and healthier products, improving product shelf life, improving product traceability, reducing the use of plastics, sugars and saturated fats and other ingredients that are considered to be harmful to humans or the environment. Many of these initiatives are driven by the cultural trends of society.
Statistics forecast that the total global revenue of the food and beverage segment is expected to reach around US$277 billion in 2021.
Market Leading Companies
Top global food and beverage companies include, but are not limited to: Nestle (Switzerland), Kweichow Moutai and Foshan Haitian (China), Cargill, PepsiCo, Anheuser-Busch, Tyson Foods, Archer Daniels Midland, Sysco, Mondelez International, Kraft Heinz, Kroger, Hershey and Coca-Cola (USA), JBS SA (Brazil), Danone (France), Heineken (Netherlands), Ahold Delhaize and Heineken (Netherlands), Associated British Foods and Diageo (UK), Kerry Group (Ireland), Wilmar (Singapore).
The overall food and beverage industry is expected to continue to grow through 2025 due to increased consumption worldwide and the easing of Covid-19 trade restrictions. The Asia Pacific region is the largest food and beverage region on the world followed by the USA. Most revenue is expected to be generated in China.
Key industry objectives
The food and beverage industry objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services to the food and beverage production companies/clients and contractors based on my expertise, experience and project execution knowledge of projects executed in these industries. This includes the services and methodologies as described in the executive summary and service objectives listed above.
Value of Industry
The mining industry is a global and diverse industry that essentially extracts and processes valuable minerals from an ore body, lode, vein, reef or deposit in the earth. These minerals are of economic value to a wide range of industries.
The minerals and metals most mined include: sand/ gravel, cement, iron and steel, iron ore, coal, bauxite, lime, salt, phosphate rock, nitrogen and gypsum. Although required as raw materials for the products we consume on a daily basis, the mining industry tends to focus more on base and precious metals and minerals. Coal is widely mined and used for energy and the production of fuels. Base metals (or non-ferrous metals) are more abundant in nature and easier to mine (e.g. aluminum, copper, zinc, nickel) whilst precious metals are relatively rare (e.g. silver, gold, palladium and platinum). Gemstones are even rare but high value (e.g. diamonds). Access to these minerals and metals often proves to be challenging and costly to extract.
The top mining countries in the world include: China, Australia, Russia, United States, India, South Africa, Indonesia, Canada, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Kazakhstan. The following countries are blessed with vast mineral resources that have not been fully exploited yet: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Indonesia and Ukraine.
In 2020, the revenue of the top 40 global mining companies was reported to be around US$700 billion with assets valued at around US$1.1 trillion.
Market Leading Companies
The top global mining and mineral companies include, but are not limited to: BHP, Rio Tinto and Fortescue Metals (Australia), Value SA (Brazil), Norilsk Nickel and Polyus (Russia), Southern Copper, Newmont GoldCorp and Freeport McMoRan (USA), Glencore and Anglo American (UK), Barrick Gold (Canada), Jiangxi Copper, China MinMetals Corporation and China Shenhau Energy (China), ArcellorMittal and Coal India (India) and Polyus (Russia).
The mining companies have been recalibrating their businesses since the Covid-19 pandemic hit in 2020. Capital expenditures were deferred in 2020 slowing project pipelines. According to the Engineering and Mining Journal, as of the end of 2020, the number of metals and mining industry projects impacted by the pandemic exceeded 1,600, representing US$212 billion.
China appears to be leading the way when it comes to new investments, followed by Australia , India and Canada. Increase iron ore consumption from China will continue to drive new investment as it imports approximately 70% of its iron ore from Australia. Another key commodity to watch is the demand for copper, as it is a leading indicator of economic growth. Major copper producers in Chile and Peru. The overall mining industry outlook for 2021 is positive.
Key industry objectives
The mining industry objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services to the mining, metals and related companies/clients and contractors based on my expertise, experience and project execution knowledge of projects executed within these industries. This includes the services and methodologies as described in the executive summary and service objectives listed above.
Oil and Gas
Value of Industry
Some consider the oil and gas industry the largest business sector globally that employs millions of workers and generates trillions of dollars in revenue annually. The oil and gas sector is split into: upstream, midstream and downstream.
Upstream includes the exploration, exploitation (drilling) and extraction of underground natural gas and crude oil fields both offshore and onshore. This also includes hydraulic fracturing. Midstream includes the transportation, processing and storage of oil and gas that has been extracted. This includes pipelines, shipping, trucking and oil/gas cleaning facilities. Downstream includes the filtering, processing and refining of the raw oil and gas upstream products and the refining of oil and gas produces fuels (gasoline, distillates, jet fuel etc.), natural gas as well as the production of a whole host of chemicals and other hydrocarbon byproducts.
The global oil and gas industry is highly dependent on a country’s reserves and the location of the reserves. Access to some of these reserves often proves to be challenging and costly to extract as they are remote areas or offshore in deep water. The top oil and gas producing countries in the world include: USA, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Canada, Iraq, United Arab Emirates (UAE), China, Iran, Kuwait, Brazil, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Qatar and Angola. Countries that have the significant oil and gas reserves that are not listed above include: Venezuela (largest reserves in the world), Libya and Algeria.
According to market research by IBISWorld, a leading business intelligence firm, the total revenues for the oil and gas drilling sector amounted to approximately US$3.3 trillion in 2019.
Market Leading Companies
The top global oil and gas companies include, but are not limited to: Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia), Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands), China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and National Offshore Oil China (China), BP PLC (UK), ExxonMobil, Chevron, Valero and Phillips 66 (USA), Total SA (France), Lukoil, Gazprom and Rosneft (Russia), National Iranian Oil Company (Iran) and JX Holdings (Japan).
Global energy demand is expected to remain flat and possibly trend modestly upwards during 2021 as the world recovers from the Covid-19 pandemic, driven mainly by China and India. Although the outlook for 2021 remains pessimistic as the oil and gas consumption struggles to reach pre-pandemic levels, the hope is that demand recovers to this point by the end of 2021.
Key industry objectives
The oil and gas industry objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services to the oil and gas companies/clients and contractors based on my expertise, experience and project execution knowledge of projects executed within these industries. This includes the services and methodologies as described in the executive summary and service objectives listed above.
This service is primarily available within the following locations:
Denver is known as the “Mile High” city as it is located a mile (5,280 ft) above sea level. Founded in 1858 as a gold mining town, it is located on the South Platte river close to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The growth of Denver was fueled by the mining industry through the 1800s as well as the processing and shipping of minerals and ranch products.
The current Denver metropolitan population is around 2.8 million and is the capital and most populous city in Colorado.
Value of City
Colorado’s front range urban corridor (which includes Denver), has a population of around 5 million people. Through the 1990s, the majority of Denver’s economy was concentrated in the following business sectors: energy, government, military, technology and agriculture. Denver’s fast growing and expanding industry and commerce has attracted many young entrepreneurs in the past 10 years. In 2019 alone, Colorado’s population gained 67,000 newcomers, most of which settled in Denver. Per Statistica, Denver’s GDP was estimated to be around US$202.5 billion in 2019.
The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic downturn of Colorado’s and Denver’s economies in 2020 with record declines in GDP and employment. The city is currently working diligently to get the Covid-19 under control through its vaccination program roll-out and is focused on reopening businesses and schools as soon as it can. The economy is forecast to recover and continue to grow.
Denver International Airport (DIA) is ranked as the 20th busiest airport in the world and 5th in the USA.
Major industries in Colorado include: oil & gas (including shale oil), telecommunications, mining, military, aerospace, manufacturing, trade, transportation, utilities, agriculture, leisure and hospitality. Major companies near Denver: Ball Corporation, Gates and Johns Manville (manufacturing), Comcast, Century Link, Dish Network, Level 3 communications (telecommunications), Raytheon and Lockheed Martin (aerospace), United Airlines (transportation), Molson Coors Brewing Company (brewing), Suncor (refining), CH2MHill, AECOM and Jacobs Engineering Group (engineering/construction) and Newmont Mining Company (mining).
Other major presence: military (Military Academy, Norad, Space Command, various military bases) , education (universities, colleges), tourism (ski resorts) and sports (7 professional teams).
Key location objectives
Denver provides a diversified industrial base, high tech industry, expanding industrial base, centrally located in the USA, ranked 6th in the State Policy Reports’ index of State Economic Momentum and 9th best state for business (by Forbes).
My objective is to provide project management and execution consulting services in Denver and Colorado as I have resided and worked here for the past 25 years and have an intimate knowledge of the city and region. My diverse project experience and expertise in the mining, food and beverage, construction, utilities and infrastructure industries are well suited and relevant to companies/clients and contractors in this region.
Phoenix is known as “Valley of the Sun”, as it is situated in a valley surrounded by mountains and the Salt River. Phoenix was founded in 1868 by John Swilling as he realized the farming potential of the land. Farming in this arid region of Arizona, required a reliable source of water and infrastructure. In the 1920s, the Central Arizona Project was developed to bring water to central Arizona via a 336 mi long water supply system consisting of a series of dams, pump stations and aqueducts. This enabled Phoenix to expand significantly and evolve into the city it is today.
The current Phoenix metropolitan population is around 4.5 million in an area of around 520 square miles, making it the largest and most populous city in Arizona. It is also the capital of Arizona.
Value of City
Phoenix’s early economy was based on agriculture and natural resources, mainly copper. The city became more accessible with the development of the Southern Pacific rail line in 1926 and the construction of the Sky Harbor airport. The conclusion of WWII spurred the city’s economy and grow. The city’s population has grown significantly since the 2007 recession and remains a leading city for year-on-year job growth in the USA.
Per Statistica, Phoenix’s GDP was estimated to be around US$237.5 billion in 2019. In 2018, Phoenix’s economy was growing at nearly twice the rate of the rest of the USA. The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic downturn of the Phoenix economy in 2020 with record declines in GDP and employment. The city is currently working diligently to get the Covid-19 under control and is focused on stimulating its economy to return to pre-pandemic economic growth. The economy is forecast to recover by the end of 2021 and continue to grow.
Major industries in Arizona include: real estate, finance, insurance, manufacturing, retail trade, health care, agriculture, mining, aerospace, electronics and business services.Major companies near Phoenix: Intel and Avenet (electronics), Boeing, Honeywell and Raytheon (aerospace), Freeport-McMoRan (mining), Banner Health (health care), PetSmart (pet products), American Express (finance), U-Haul (moving equipment), Wells Fargo (banking) and Republic Services (waste management).
Other major presence: military (various military bases) , education (universities, colleges) and sports.
Key location objectives
Phoenix provides a diversified and expanding industrial base and is a regional hub in south western USA. Phoenix continues to develop its position as an attractive business location with good prospects for continued growth.
The objective of providing project management and execution consulting services in Phoenix and Arizona is that I have worked there on various projects and have an intimate knowledge of the city and region. My diverse project experience and expertise in the mining, food and beverage, utilities, infrastructure and construction industries are well suited and relevant to companies/clients and contractors in this region.
Toronto’s meaning could be derived from two possible sources: “meeting place” which was the name the native Huron people referred to this area or it could also be from the Mohawk word meaning “where there are trees standing in the water”. In the 1600s, the Frenchman Etienne Brule found the river and portage routes from the St. Lawrence to Lake Huron and eventually Lake Ontario. A French trading post called Teiaiagon was established here and renamed York in 1793. In 1834 it was renamed Toronto to distinguish itself from New York City. The city grew steadily in the late 19th century with the influx of Anglo-Saxon protestants leading into the 20th century.
The current greater Toronto metropolitan population is around 6.2 million in an area of around 7,100 square km, making it the largest and most populous city in Canada. It is also the capital of Ontario province in Canada.
Value of City
Toronto developed from being the center of railways and the supplier of goods to Ontario and expanded rapidly following the influx of European immigrants after WWII. Manufacturing (especially in the automotive industry) boomed with the increase in the population. Toronto has subsequently diversified and currently contributes 20% of the Canadian GDP and is an international center of business in North America. It is the center of the media, advertising, entertainment, fashion, communication, technology, pharmaceutical, retail and financial industries of Canada. It is also diversified in design, life sciences, aerospace, education and tourism and is also a major hub for Canadian mining companies (the other being Vancouver) with easy access to global financing. Toronto continues to position itself and perform as an attractive business location with multi-sector strength, depth of talent, a driving economy and strong financial engine. Per Statistica, Ontario’s GDP was estimated to be around CDN$744.4 billion in 2019 with Toronto contributing around CDN$330 billion.
Toronto’s Pearson International Airport is ranked as the 11th busiest airport in North America.
Major industries in Toronto include: financial services, business services, media, technology, real estate, retail, mining, tourism and sports. Major companies near Toronto: Apple, Microsoft and SAP (communications/ media), ASUS (electronics), Coca-Cola (beverages), Intel (electronics), Toyota (manufacturing), Barrick Gold Corporation and Kinross Gold (mining).
Other major presence: education (universities, colleges) and sports.
Key location objectives
Toronto is a major financial hub for Canada hosting many major Canadian company headquarters and provides a diversified industrial base and major high-tech companies.
The objective of providing project management and execution consulting services in Toronto and Canada is that I have worked in Canada on various projects. My diverse project experience and expertise in the mining, oil and gas, utilities, infrastructure and construction industries are well suited and relevant to companies/clients and contractors in this region.
Cape Town is known as the “Mother City” of South Africa and is located at the southern tip of the African continent. Founded in 1652, when Jan van Riebeek of the Dutch East India Company established a station to resupply European ships sailing around the Cape between Europe and the east. The British ruled the Cape from 1806 when they established the Cape Colony. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the interior of South Africa in 1880 helped to further cement Cape Town’s importance and value. In addition to this, Cape Town’s regional location and strategic value to the Allies in WWI and WWII cannot be underestimated.
The current greater Cape Town metropolitan population is around 4.5 million in an area of around 400 square km. It is the capital city and most populous city of the Western Cape Province and the second most populous city in South Africa.
Value of City
Cape Town provides an industrial, manufacturing and commercial base for the southern region of South Africa. It has a strong and vibrant economy serving as a regional manufacturing center and is strongly dependent on tourism. It does have major social challenges coping with the major influx of unskilled workers into the region from other economically deprived regions of South Africa (e.g. Eastern Cape). The Western Cape province accounted for ZAR4.36 billion in the first quarter of 2019 with Cape Town contributing around 70% of the provincial GDP. The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic downturn of Cape Town’s economy in 2020 with record declines in GDP and employment. The city is currently working diligently to get the Covid-19 under control and is focused on stimulating its economy to return to pre-pandemic economic growth and employment.
Cape Town’s International Airport is the second largest airport in South Africa and is a major gateway to/from Europe and serves the USA, Middle East and Far East.
Major industries in Cape Town include: financial and business services, transport, logistics, manufacturing, clothing and textiles, energy , agriculture (wine, fruit), fishing and tourism. Major companies near Cape Town: Naspers (media), Johnson & Johnson and GlaxoSmithKline (pharmaceuticals), Levi Straus, Adidas, Bokomo Foods and Nampak (manufacturing), Ceres (beverages), Eskom Koeberg (energy) and Chevron (refining).
Other major presence: agriculture, fishing, education (universities) and tourism.
Key location objectives
The objective of providing project management and execution consulting services in Cape Town and South Africa is that I have worked there on various projects and have an intimate knowledge of the city and region. I am also registered as a Professional Engineer (Pr. Eng) in South Africa. My diverse project experience and expertise in the mining, food and beverage, utilities, infrastructure and construction industries are well suited and relevant to companies/clients and contractors in this region.
Known as “The City of Gold”, Johannesburg is located in the mineral rich Witwatersrand area of South Africa and is the hub of the country’s economic, financial and mining industries. The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in 1884, set off a major gold rush which transformed both Johannesburg and South Africa. The population of the area grew rapidly and became a municipality in 1897. In 1928, it became a city and has subsequently grown into the largest city in South Africa. The Johannesburg area is now the financial hub for South Africa and Africa hosting many headquarters for major companies operating in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The greater metropolitan Johannesburg population is around 10.5 million in an area of approx. 1,640 square km. It is also the largest and most populous city in South Africa.
Value of City
The mining industry continued to provide the economic engine and growth for both Johannesburg and South Africa with many mines being developed in the region. Today it also provides a gateway to the minerally rich (platinum, gold and diamonds) countries in Southern Africa. Although the mining reserves and mining activity has dwindled significantly in the past 20 years, the city has diversified significantly to remain the financial and economic hub of South Africa, producing around 16% of South Africa’s GDP (which was reported to be around US$350 billion in 2019). The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic downturn of Johannesburg’s economy in 2020 with record declines in GDP and employment. The city is currently working diligently to get the Covid-19 under control and is focused on stimulating its economy to return to pre-pandemic economic growth and employment.
Johannesburg’s Oliver Tambo International Airport is the region’s busiest airport and is accessible directly from the USA, Middle and Far East, Australia and Europe.
Major industries in Johannesburg include: finance, mining, manufacturing, heavy industries, business services, retail, real estate and tourism. Major companies near Johannesburg: AECI and African Explosives (chemicals), South African Breweries (beverages), Tiger Brands, Nampak and Barlow World (manufacturing), Sappi (paper), MTN, Vodacom, Cell C and Multichoice (communications), Eskom, Sasol and Total (energy), Transnet and South African Airways (transportation), Anglo Gold Ashanti, Gold Fields Anglo American and DeBeers (mining).
Other major presence: banking/financial, education (Universities) and sports.
Key location objectives
Johannesburg has a diversified and expanding industrial, high tech and manufacturing base, continues to be the economic powerhouse of Sub-Saharan Africa and remains an attractive business location with good prospects for continued growth. It also provides a gateway to the Sub-Saharan countries.
The objective of providing project management and execution consulting services in Johannesburg and South Africa is that I have resided and worked there for many years and have an intimate knowledge of the city and region. I am also registered as a Professional Engineer (Pr. Eng) in South Africa. My diverse project experience and expertise in the mining, food and beverage, utilities, infrastructure and construction industries are well suited and relevant to companies/clients and contractors in this region.
This service’s current clients or employers include:
Fluor provides professional and technical solutions to deliver safe, well executed, capital efficient engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) projects to clients around the world.
Stock Exchange listing/symbol: Listed in the 1950s on the NYSE (Symbol: FLR).
Stock price: US$16.32 (as of 26 Feb 2021).
Revenues: US$15.7 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
Net earnings: -US$225.6 million as of 31 Dec 2020.
Total assets: US$7.3 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
Backlog: US$25.6 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
CEO: David Constable (since 2021).
Founded in 1912 by John Fluor as Fluor Construction Company, the company started building oil refineries, pipelines and other oil and gas facilities in California. Fluor was headquartered in Irvine (CA) in 1972, Aliso Viejo (CA) in 1999 and Irving (TX) in 2006. Fluor acquired Daniel International Corporation in 1977 adding construction to the portfolio and becoming Fluor Daniel. The company was restructured and renamed as Fluor in 2001. It restructured and diversified many times over the years to become a top tier international engineering, construction, maintenance and project management provider. Ranked as 181th in Fortune 500 companies in 2020, it now has offices in 25 countries.
Organized into three business segments, Urban Solutions, Mission Solutions and Energy Solutions, Fluor serves clients in advanced technologies, infrastructure, life sciences, government, mining and metals, energy and chemicals market sectors.
Number of Employees: Global workforce of 45,000
Headquarters: Irving, TX.
Fluor has around 124 offices scattered throughout North America, South America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, Africa and Asia to support its diverse portfolio of clients. Major offices locations include:
North America: Aliso Viejo and Long Beach (CA), Greenville (SC), Houston (TX), Calgary (AB), Vancouver (BC).
Latin America: Mexico City (Mexico) and Santiago (Chile).
Europe: Amsterdam and Utrecht (Netherlands), Gliwice (Poland) and Farnborough (UK).
Middle East/Africa: Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia) and Johannesburg (South Africa).
Far East: Shanghai (China), Manila (Philippines), Perth (Australia) and New Dehli (India).
Jacobs provides a broad range of technical, professional, and construction services to a large number of industrial, commercial, and governmental clients around the world. The Company offers interior, construction management, scientific research and testing, architecture, engineering, and operations and maintenance services.
Stock Exchange listing/symbol: Listed in the 1970 on the NYSE (Symbol: J).
Stock price: US$111.15 (as of 17 Feb 2021).
Revenues: US$13.6 billion as of 30 Sep 2020.
Net earnings: US$353.9 million as of 30 Sep 2020.
Total assets: US$12.8 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
Backlog: US$23.8 billion as of 27 Sep 2020.
CEO: Steven Demetriou (since 2015).
Jacobs Engineering was founded in 1947 by Joseph Jacobs as the consulting company. Jacobs expanded by being awarded larger design contracts in the 1950s and 1960s and continued to expand in the 1970s. In 1985, it underwent a significant restructuring. It was headquartered in Pasadena (CA) in 1972 but moved to Dallas (TX) in 2016. Jacobs has constantly grown and expanded internationally by significant mergers and acquisitions through the years e.g. Sinclair Knight Merz in 2014 for AUS$1,2 billion, CH2M Hill in 2017 for US$3.27 billion, Wood Nuclear in 2020 for £250 million and in 2020 announced it is investing £1.83 billion in the UK based company PA Consulting. In 2018, it sold its Energy, Chemicals and Resources (ECR) segment to WorleyParsons. Jacobs has restructured and diversified many times throughout its history to become a top tier international engineering, construction, maintenance and project management provider. It was ranked as 206th in Fortune 500 companies in 2020 and has offices in 40+ countries.
Jacobs is organized into two major business lines, Critical Mission Solutions (CMS) and People & Places Solutions (P&PS).
CMS serves broad sectors including the US government, nuclear, commercial and international sectors.
P&PS provides end-to-end solutions for their clients most complex projects. Jacobs provides program and construction management, strategic consulting, operations management, design-build, construction, maintenance and turnaround services. Their clients include national, state and local governments in the USA, Europe, UK, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand and Asia.
Number of Employees: Global workforce of 55,000.
Headquarters: Dallas, TX.
Jacobs has around 400 offices scattered throughout North America, South America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, Africa and Asia to support its diverse portfolio of clients. Their “Focus 2023” objective is to reduce their physical office space by 30% during the next few years as the company shifts to a more “flexible and virtual workforce”.
Sasol is a global integrated chemicals and energy company based in Sandton, South Africa operating in 30 countries globally. Sasol develops and commercializes technologies, including synthetic fuels technologies, and produces different liquid fuels, chemicals and electricity.
Stock Exchange listing/symbol: Listed in the 1979 on the JSE (Symbol: SOL) and in 2003 on the NYSE (Symbol: SSL).
Stock price: ZAR20,000 (JSE) and US$13.55 (NYSE) – as of 17 Feb 2021. Revenues: US$12.3 billion as of 30 Jun 2020.
Net earnings: -US$5.87 billion as of 30 Jun 2020.
Total assets: US$30.86 billion as of 30 Jun 2020.
CEO: Fleetwood Grobler (since 2019).
Sasol was formally incorporated as a state-owned company called South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation in 1950. The first major coal-to-liquids fuels (CTL) production facility (Sasol 1) was constructed and commissioned in Sasolburg (South Africa) in 1954 followed by Sasol 2 and Sasol 3 in Secunda (South Africa) in 1980 and 1982 respectively. To feed and support these production facilities, Sasol also developed an extensive network of coal mines. The main technology adopted (and further refined) for the CTL production facilities was the
Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The Fischer-Tropsch process produces a significant array of high value chemicals that have a higher value per ton of production than the fuels. With the extraction of chemicals from its Fischer-Tropsch product slate coupled with downstream functionalization and on-purpose chemical production facilities, Sasol moved from being just a South African fuels company to become an international integrated energy and chemicals company with over 200 chemical products being sold worldwide. Sasol expanded internationally starting in 2006 with Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) plants being built in Qatar, Uzbekistan and in Lake Charles, Louisiana.
Today, Sasol has more than 7,300 chemicals customers in over 1,200 countries.
Sasol’s global chemicals business includes the marketing and sales of all chemical products, both in Southern Africa and internationally. The chemicals business is divided into two groups: Base Chemicals (e.g. fertilizers, polymers and solvents products) and Performance Chemicals (e.g. surfactants, surfactant intermediates, fatty alcohols, linear alkyl benzene (LAB), short-chain linear alpha olefins, ethylene, mineral oil-based and synthetic paraffin waxes, cresylic acids, high-quality carbon solutions) as well as high-purity and ultra-high-purity alumina and a specialty gases sub-division.
The Energy business is divided into South Africa Energy and International Energy. South Africa Energy manages the marketing, sales and production of all oil, gas and electricity products in Southern Africa. International Energy manages GTL productions in Qatar and Nigeria.
Number of Employees: Global workforce of 30,000
Headquarters: Sandton, South Africa
Major production facilities: South Africa: Sasol 1 GTL facility and Natref refinery (50% JV with Total) in Sasolburg, Sasol 2 & 3 CTL facilities (Secunda) and various coal mines in Secunda.
Outside of South Africa: Oryx GTL facility (Qatar), EGTL (Nigeria) and Lake Charles Petrochemical complex (Louisiana, USA).
Rio Tinto Group is an Anglo-Australian multinational and the world’s second largest mining and metals corporation producing iron ore, copper, diamonds, gold and uranium. It operates mines, smelters and refineries in 36 different countries worldwide.
Stock Exchange listings/symbols: Listed in 2005 on the London Stock Exchange (Symbol: RIO.L) and Australian Securities Exchange (Symbol: RIO.AX).
Stock price: £6,235.00 (LSE) and AUD$127.50 (ASX) – as of 18 Feb 2021. Revenues: US$44.61 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
Net earnings: US$9.77 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
Total assets: US$97.39 billion as of 31 Dec 2020.
CEO: Jakob Stausholm (Since 2021).
Rio Tinto was founded in 1873, when a multinational consortium of investors purchased a mine complex to mine copper, silver, gold and other minerals in Huelva, Spain, from the Spanish government. Starting in 1925, the company focused on the diversification of the company’s investment portfolio and has subsequently grown exponentially through a series of mergers and acquisitions. These include the some of the following:
1960s: Merged with Consolidated Zinc to form Rio Tinto – Zinc Corporation (RTZ) and Conzinc RioTinto of Australia (CRA). Acquired U.S. Borax.
1989: Acquired Kennecott Utah Copper and BP Australia’s coal assets from BP and a 70% interest of Coal & Allied Industries.
2000s: Acquired the Australian coal businesses of the Peabody Energy Corporation and Alcan.
2010s: Establish a JV the development and operation of the iron-ore Simandou mine in Guinea with Chinalco. Gained control of Ivanhoe Mines and its Oyu Tolgoi mine in Mongolia.
Rio Tinto is primarily organized into four operational businesses, divided by product type:
Aluminum, Copper & Diamonds, Energy & Minerals and Iron Ore. Rio Tinto mines copper, iron ore, bauxite, diamonds, uranium, and industrial minerals including titanium dioxide, salt, gypsum, and borates. Rio Tinto also owns plants dedicated to processing bauxite into alumina and aluminum, and smelting iron ore into iron and also produces other metals and minerals as byproducts from the processing of its main resources (e.g. gold, silver, molybdenum, sulfuric acid, nickel, potash, lead, and zinc).
Number of Employees: Global workforce of 46,000.
Joint headquarters: London (UK) and Melbourne (Australia).
Major mines, smelters and refining facilities:
Iron Ore: Pilbara (Western Australia) comprising of 16 mines , 4 port terminals and 1,700 km of rail network.
Copper: Oyu Tolgoi mine ( Mongolia), Kennecott Utah Copper (USA), Minera Escondida (Chile).
Aluminum: 7 bauxite mines, 6 alumina refineries and 6 specialty alumina plants, 26 aluminum smelters, 13 power plants, and 120 facilities for the manufacture of specialty products. Bauxite mines are located in Australia, Brazil and Africa. Alumina refineries in Australia, Brazil, Canada, and France and smelters in 11 different countries in the world. Uranium: Ranger Uranium Mine (Australia) and Rössing Uranium Mine (Namibia).
Diamonds: Argyle Diamond Mine (Western Australia), Diavik Diamond Mine (Canada) and Murowa Diamond Mine (Zimbabwe).
Industrial Minerals: Rio Tinto Borax (California), Dampier Salt (Australia) and other interests in gypsum.
Titanium Dioxide in Canada, South Africa and Madagascar.